Brickyard Buffalo Guest Editor

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I am so excited to be the Guest Editor over at Brickyard Buffalo today!

Brickyard Buffalo is a website designed to help you shop your favorite brands on a budget. They curate the trendiest items out there for a price you can afford. They work with ‘Guest Editors’ to help find great products and this month I’m lucky enough to have picked out some of my favorite shops and products to be featured for you to shop at a discounted price!

Here are a few of my picks!

I designed this shirt with Cents of Style to inspire others to ‘Keep Moving Forward’ through good times and bad.

I love baby wraps because they facilitate skin-to-skin! Which in turn can help foster a great breastfeeding relationship. I’m so happy Happy Baby Carriers will be selling thier wraps at such a great price this week!

Lillemer Breast Comfort Packs are one of my top recommendations to my breastfeeding mamas. They can be warmed or cooled to help comfort a range of breast discomfort.

Covered Goods Multi Use nursing cover is a MUST for breastfeeding mamas. Not only is it a functional 360-degree nursing cover, but it also can be used as a car seat cover, high chair cover and scarf!

Puj baby tubs are a must have for newborns.  They are soft, comfortable, portable and, in my opinion, beautiful!

I had to pick this print as one of my Guest Editors choices! I decided to go for it with this business and it has been so incredibly rewarding!

Head over to Brickyard Buffalo to check out the rest of my picks!

Can I exercise and breastfeed? via lactationlink.com

Can I breastfeed if I want to exercise?

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips, Can I breastfeed if?, motherhood | No Comments

Hi, mamas! I’m Lacey Parr, a lactation educator and mom of 3. I’m here today to talk about exercise and breastfeeding. 

After healing and resting from pregnancy and childbirth, many moms feel the need to bring some more movement into their routine. Often moms are concerned about how exercise and breastfeeding can go together. Luckily, studies have shown that moderate exercise will not affect your milk supply (1). So why do so many moms worry about exercise and breastfeeding? Lots of new moms begin exercising around 6 weeks postpartum and at the same time, baby often starts nursing more frequently. Many moms think this means they are having issues with supply, related to their exercise. But actually, 6 weeks is a normal growth spurt when baby will need to nurse more often. So feel free to start moving your body in healthy ways without any worries about supply. If you do have consistent worries about supply, please contact a lactation consultant. We have 4 lactation consultants here at Lactation Link that can help online or in-person

Bringing more movement into your life can bring not only physical strength, but the mental clarity mothers need! Be sure to check with your midwife or doctor before returning to physical activity after childbirth. New moms might find it helpful to think outside the exercise box. There are other options outside of joining a gym or starting a complicated routine. The physical movement that nourishes your whole body can be added throughout your day and can include your baby. I hope the following tips will encourage you to feel confident about exercise and breastfeeding. Here are a few ways that have helped other moms bring movement into their lives with a new baby:

  1. Start small & work up. You already have an 8-pound weight that you are lifting and carrying all day: your baby. So check weight lifting off your list, you’re already doing that ;). You can increase your amount of movement is other small ways as well. Nurse in different positions and locations, like the floor. When going for checkup, take the stairs instead of the elevator. You can also increase the amount of steps you take each day by parking in the back of the parking lot, or a block away from your destination. Anytime you can walk, rather than drive, will add more movement to your day.                          Can I breastfeed if I want to exercise? via lactationlink.com
  2. Include your baby. Many gyms do have daycare as an option, but if you aren’t ready to be away from your baby, you can remove the stress of pumping, finding a sitter and leaving your baby behind a few hours by bringing your baby along for more movement! Look at local barre, yoga and even Zumba classes that encourage babywearing. Natural movements at home like stretching on the floor and going for a walk can all include baby. With some practice, you’ll be able to hike and nurse at the same time with your baby carrier! Can I breastfeed if I want to exercise? via lactationlink.com
  3. Bring community along. Movement and exercise are more fun with friends. Put a call out on social media and meet up with other friends to take a walk. Bring your baby carrier or stroller with you and you’ve received fresh air, exercise and socializing all at once! In this relaxed environment, you can take breaks to nurse as often as baby needs.
  4. Get outside. Simply getting outside of our normal sedentary surroundings, we find more opportunities for movement. Take a walk in your neighborhood or find a hike in your area. Even a playground can be a great place to get more movement. The monkey bars can be a great place to hang (literally) and work muscles that need more movement. Take your vegetable chopping to your balcony or deck. Squatting or sitting on the ground to chop will not only work different muscles than doing it at the counter, it probably has a better view!Can I breastfeed if I want to exercise? via lactationlink.com
  5. Stack your life. I learned one summer when we were without a dryer that hang-drying my laundry was totally counting as exercise. Lifting a basket of heavy, wet laundry, walking it to the line, and going through the repetitive motions of bending, lifting and reaching was moving my chest and arm muscles in ways I hadn’t in months. I was cleaning, helping my family, getting fresh air and getting more movement. Think outside the exercise box. Do you have a flower bed or garden that needs weeding? Think of all the bending and squatting necessary to weed and tend to your plants. In addition to being outside, learning more about your food and helping it grow, you are exercising! Bring your baby along in your sling or on a blanket for easy access for nursing.

Being more active and adding more movement into your life after a baby doesn’t have to involve a gym membership or a strict exercise routine. Exercise and breastfeeding are compatible and helpful for you and baby. Recognizing the new movements you are already doing, including your baby, bringing along community, getting outside and stacking your life are all great ways to bring movement into your motherhood. 

Have you signed up for our free Confident Breastfeeding Course yet?

You’re gonna love it! Click below for more info.

Join our free confident breastfeeding course

Related articles:

Can I breastfeed if I want to lose weight?

Fun on the swings

What not to eat when breastfeeding

How to breastfeed in public

Thanks for coming by,

lactationlink.com

Lacey Parr, BS, CLE

Sources

(1) Daley, A.J., Thomas, A., Cooper, H., Fitzpatrick, H., McDonald, C., Moore, H., Rooney, R., Deeks, J.J. (2012). Maternal exercise and growth in breastfed infants: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pediatrics, 130 (1). 108-14. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22711727

3 of the best things you can do during pregnancy to prepare for motherhood via lactationlink.com

3 of the best things you can do during pregnancy

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips, motherhood | No Comments

Hi, mamas! I’m Lacey Parr, a lactation educator and blog manager here at Lactation Link. I’m a mom to 3 and am here today to talk about 3 of the best things you can do during pregnancy to prepare for motherhood. 

There are some things I wish I would have known as a first-time mom. From my thorough Pinterest research (snicker) I assumed that the best thing I could do for my baby was to create a beautiful nursery and buy a bunch of stuff. Spoiler alert: we didn’t use the nursery or much of the stuff. Baby slept in a pack n’ play next to our bed for most of his first year. Creating a cute nautical-themed nursery was fun, but unnecessary.

What I wish I would have done was prepare to learn how to breastfeed. I thought I would just figure it out at the hospital. The nurses were great and encouraged me but had other patients to help too. So I went home not quite knowing what to do. I devoured every book on breastfeeding at my local library and went to several lactation appointments and we eventually hit our stride. We had a wonderful breastfeeding experience for over 13 months which led to even better experiences with my second and third children. But learning how to breastfeed didn’t have to happen when I was sleep deprived and anxious about my newborn. If I would have had access to a breastfeeding class like our Breastfeeding Basics class, I know breastfeeding would have come much easier.

Here are 3 things I wish all women knew about during pregnancy to help prepare for motherhood:

  1. Obtain quality prenatal care. This seems like a given, I know. But if you’ve walked into an appointment with your healthcare provider and felt rushed, know that it’s okay to shop around for providers. Ask other mothers you admire who they go to for prenatal care. It’s nothing personal to switch providers. You deserve, even need to feel supported, heard and safe during your appointments. Feeling comfortable with your provider now will help you to feel safe and comfortable during birth. I switched providers early on during my first pregnancy and was glad I did! I started motherhood with a team of caring providers who lifted me up. Pro tip: You can switch providers as late in your pregnancy as you want!
  2. Prepare for birth. Take a quality childbirth class. Read positive birth stories. Surround yourself with women that talk highly of birth. Consider hiring a doula, someone who will guide you through the mountain summit of birth! Talk with your partner about what you expect of them during birth. There is no wrong way to birth, my only hope for you is to feel supported, safe and heard during birth.3 of the best things you can do during pregnancy to prepare for motherhood via lactationlink.com
  3. Educate yourself on breastfeeding. I actually intended to take a breastfeeding class when I was pregnant with my first. We went to the hospital for the class and the teacher had an emergency and could not come. There was not another class before my due date. Lucky you, you don’t have to worry about coordinating dates with your hospital! You can take a quality, peer-reviewed breastfeeding class on your couch! I so wish I would have had Lactation Link when I was pregnant. You’ll never regret learning more about how to prepare for caring for baby and breastfeeding. Have you taken our free Confident Breastfeeding Course yet? It comes to your email and is a great place to start.

You might notice my list does not include “create a trendy nursery.” If only I could go back to my younger self and tell her that! But, I can tell you and that’s pretty close. But listen, if creating a beautiful nursery makes you feel prepared for baby, go for it! Nesting is a real thing and we all do it. Just don’t let that be the only thing you do. We cannot prepare 100% for motherhood because there is really no way to prepare for the intensity of joy, anxiousness, spit-up, poop and head-over-heels LOVE that comes with bringing life to the world. But obtaining quality prenatal care, preparing for birth and taking a breastfeeding class can help you visualize with confidence this new journey. Okay, mamas, what helped you feel prepared for motherhood? 

More on preparing for motherhood from Lactation Link:

How to create a community of support for breastfeeding

A survival guide for the first two weeks of breastfeeding

Breastfeeding tips for new moms

Why should I breastfeed?

Thanks for stopping by,

3 of the best things you can do during pregnancy to prepare for motherhood via lactationlink.com

Lacey Parr, BS, CLE

How to wean via lactationlink.com

How to Wean from Breastfeeding

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips, motherhood | No Comments

Many of you have been requesting a post on how to wean.  No matter how much we and our babies enjoy nursing, it will come to an end at some point! It’s up to you and your child to decide when is best. Today I wanted to share a bit more on how to wean by first discussing Child-Led Weaning and Mother-Led Weaning.  I hope this post will give you some confidence in this process! As always, know your options so you can continue to create confidence in your choices as a mom!

how to wean from breastfeeding via lactationlink.com. A lactation consultant's blog.

little sapling toys {use code LINK10 for 10% off}

There’s no “right time” to wean for everyone

No matter when your Mom, sister, neighbor, or grocery-store clerk weaned their baby, remember there’s only one right time for you and your baby.  Try not to let outside opinions or pressures factor into your decision to wean.  It’s a very individual choice for each mom/child pair! Keep in mind your original plan or goal for breastfeeding may change over the course of your experience.  A client recently told me, “My initial goal was to breastfeed for six months, now my daughter is fifteen months and there’s no end in sight!” Another client called me to her home on day three of her newborn’s life for some breastfeeding support and told me her goal was to breastfeed for one month.  The point?  All Moms and situations are different!  I’m here to support you in your goals and choices!

how to wean from breastfeeding via lactationlink.com. A lactation consultant's blog.

little sapling toys {use code LINK10 for 10% off}

Child-Led Weaning

Child-Led weaning is when the child guides the weaning process. Child-led weaning is when the child no longer has needs either nutritional or emotionally to breastfeed.  These children are typically drinking well from a cup and getting the majority of their nutrients from solid foods.  Keep in mind that child-led weaning rarely occurs before 18 months, so if you experience breast refusal before then, it’s most likely due to a nursing strike that will pass in a few days. Learn more about how to deal with a nursing strike on our Common Breastfeeding Concerns post.

how to wean from breastfeeding via lactationlink.com. A lactation consultant's blog.

little sapling toys {use code LINK10 for 10% off}

Mother-Led Weaning

Mother-Led weaning is when the mother decides it’s the right time to wean before noticing cues from her child. For mother-led weaning, be sure to consider your feelings and thoughts before beginning.  Is it your decision or are you feeling pressure from family or friends?  I read a polite but witty response to the inevitable question, “So how long do you plan to nurse?”

“OH, ABOUT ANOTHER 5 MINUTES”

Whether the decision to wean was mom’s or child’s, it’s best to take a gradual approach if possible. Remember to consider the pros and cons before starting the weaning process.  This will allow you to access the right time for both you and baby and look back on the experience with positive feelings.

How to wean via lactationlink.com

How to wean

If you have weighed the pros and cons and feel ready, obtaining some guidance on how to wean will be helpful. While there is much variation in each breastfeeding relationship, these general tips can guide you in your weaning process:

  1. Slowly & gently. This is always my quick answer to the question, “How do I wean?” Weaning overnight will be painful for you and baby. However, gentle weaning can happen and I promise your baby won’t nurse in middle school. 😉 Removing one feeding every week until they are gone is one method that has worked for many moms and babies.
  2. Find new ways to comfort. Breastfeeding is wonderful for its many purposes. It is food, drink, comfort, cuddles, hugs (and more) all in one! Since it is the answer to so many needs, when the time for weaning comes, it can be helpful to find new ways to comfort baby. Rocking, cuddles, and book reading are some things that have helped other moms.
  3. Call for reinforcement. Finding new ways to comfort your baby or toddler is a great time to include your partner. Since the hardest feeds to end are often at bedtime, it helps to have dad pitch in more during bedtime.

Much more weaning info and how to go about it gently in my video breastfeeding classes!  My goal is to create confidence in motherhood so moms can feel comfortable and certain in their choices and care for their little ones!

Have you signed up for my free Confident Breastfeeding Course yet? You’re gonna love it! Click below for more info.

Join our free confident breastfeeding course

Thanks for stopping by,

Lindsey Shipley, RN, IBCLC

Common Breastfeeding Concerns and Solutions via lactationlink.com/blog || Creating Confident Moms

Common Breastfeeding Concerns

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips | No Comments

Hello, mamas! I’m Stephanie Weight Hadfield, BS, IBCLC. I’m a mom of 4 and a lactation consultant with Lactation Link. Today I’m talking about some of the most common breastfeeding concerns I see when I’m consulting with moms and babies.

Pain and Nipple Tenderness

Pain is one of the most common reasons mothers give for early weaning. While some nipple tenderness is normal at the beginning of feeds in the early postpartum period, severe pain and skin damage is NOT normal and should be seen as a sign that help is needed. How can you tell when you should be concerned? Use the “30 second” rule. If your pain disappears within 30 seconds after latching, you can safely ignore it. If your pain lasts longer than that, gently insert your finger into the corner of your baby’s mouth to break the suction and unlatch baby, then try again. If you’re not able to get a latch that is comfortable for the majority of feeding session, your pain is severe, and/or you notice any damage to the nipple, you should seek help right away.

Common Breastfeeding Concerns and Solutions via lactationlink.com/blog || Creating Confident Moms

Milk Supply

Concerns over milk supply are right up there with nipple pain as a top cause of early weaning. Neither babies nor breasts come with full/empty gauges, so you might feel like it’s hard to know how much you’re making and how much baby is getting. However, there are some reliable signs that can clue you in if you know what to look for. You can be confident that your baby is getting just the right amount of your milk if he or she is growing and gaining well, and having plenty of wet and poopy diapers each day. After the first week, and for the first month or so, expect 5-6+ light colored and mild smelling wet diapers and 3-4+ poopy diapers. If your baby is gaining poorly and/or not having enough wet and dirty diapers, help from an IBCLC is a very good idea.

The best way to ensure that you’ll have an ample supply is to start breastfeeding within the first hour after birth and then whenever your baby shows feeding cues after that—generally 8-10 or more times per day. Milk volume works on a supply and demand principle—the more you demand it (by feeding or pumping), the more you’ll supply. Your breasts are always making milk. They’re never truly empty, so you don’t need to wait for them to feel full before you feed your baby. In fact, if you do, you might be telling your body to make less milk.

Medications While Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding mothers might worry that prescribed medications will pass through their milk and possibly hurt their babies. The Infant Risk Center at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center is an excellent resource for information on the safety of medications in breastfeeding mothers.  If you’re worried about a medication, or have been told that you can’t breastfeed while taking a medication, you can call their hotline 806-352-2519 or visit www.infantrisk.com for the most up-to-date information. If you have an ongoing medical issue requires medication and you have concerns about it and breastfeeding, we would love to talk with you on an eConsult or an in-person consultation if you are in our area. Making a personalized plan with one of our IBCLCs is a great way to bring some confidence into what could be a challenging situation.

Common Breastfeeding Concerns and Solutions via lactationlink.com/blog || Creating Confident Moms

{Little Sapling Toys–Use code LINK10 for 10% off!}

Teething & Breastfeeding

Yes, you can continue to breastfeed through teething and beyond! Many teething babies will nurse better if they get to chew on something cold first. You can also talk to your doctor about pain relief options for your teething baby. If you’re worried about those new little teeth being right next to your nipples, relax. Most babies’ teeth cause no problems at all for their mamas. When a baby is actively drinking, the tongue comes forward over the lower gumline and gets in the way of biting. If your baby does bite though, he or she is usually trying to resolve the discomfort of teething, or simply experimenting with new ways to use his or her mouth. Your baby doesn’t realize that it hurts you. You can teach your baby that biting mama isn’t ok by ending the feeding session and calmly, but firmly saying “No, no, no.”

Concerns with breastfeeding older babies

Sometimes, breastfeeding problems can pop up with older babies after breastfeeding has been going really well for a while. This can be especially worrying if you don’t know other moms who have breastfed past early infancy and worked through these common bumps in the breastfeeding journey. Joining a local breastfeeding support group is a great way to help you gain confidence in nursing your older baby, and maybe even make some new friends at the same time.

Common Breastfeeding Concerns and Solutions via lactationlink.com/blog || Creating Confident Moms

Nursing Strikes

Sometimes older babies will start to refuse to feed at the breast. It is unlikely that a baby younger than a year old is actually self-weaning from the breast. If you can protect your milk supply and be patient, you can be confident that the refusal is almost certainly temporary. Most nursing strikes only last a day or two, but some can last up to a week or more. If your baby starts to refuse the breast, keep offering gently. The trick is to act like you don’t care whether or not baby latches, even though you probably care very much! Lots of skin to skin cuddle time can be very helpful in these situations. You could try nursing baby when he or she is very sleepy, or in a new position– maybe even standing up and walking around.

If the refusal goes on more than a few hours, you’ll need to express your milk. You can give this milk to baby by cup, spoon, or bottle. Older babies who have never taken a bottle may do better with a straw sippy, or even frozen breastmilk cubes in a mesh feeder. Don’t be afraid to reach out for help from an IBCLC when having issues breastfeeding an older baby. We don’t just help newborns, we love helping moms breastfeed babies of all ages.

I hope these breastfeeding concerns and solutions have created some more confidence in yourself! What was the biggest snag you hit in breastfeeding? How did you overcome it? Share in the comments.

Thanks for stopping by,

Get in-person or online help with breastfeeding.

Stephanie Weight Hadfield, BS, IBCLC

Have you signed up for our free email breastfeeding course?

I think you’ll find it really helpful. Click the image below for more info.

Join our free confident breastfeeding course

Sources:

Mohrbacher, N. (2010). Breastfeeding answers made simple: a guide for helping mothers. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing, L.P.

 

Best Positions for Breastfeeding Twins with TwinZ Pillows

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips, Recommended Products | No Comments

We loved sharing How Can I Breastfeed Twins? with you recently. We had lots of readers ask for more information on various positions for breastfeeding twins. This post will explain those positions in depth and is in partnership with Twin Z Pillow. You can use code LACLINK for a free Twin Scheduler and Travel Bag! You can also use code LACLINK for 15% off their One Z Pillow!

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing PillowsAs with any time you breastfeed–with one or two!–baby should be tucked in close to you. Their tummy should be in full contact with your body, with no gaps. This helps baby feel secure and latch deeper. Their chin should tuck into your breast as they latch. There is no perfect way to feed twins, feeding them together (in tandem) or one at a time will be helpful in various situations from day to day! With some practice, (and you’ll get lots of it! ;), you will find the positions that work best for you and your babies.

Football Hold x2

Many moms like nursing both babies at once while both are in the football hold. Using the Twin Z Pillow brings babies up to breast on each side and even has back support for mom. Once babies are latched, you can relax into the pillow and ease your shoulders.

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

{Twin Z Pillow}

Laidback x2

Reclining to nurse in the Biological Nursing position with twins has the same benefits it does when nursing one baby. This position can allow babies to latch on and stay latched on a bit easier. Babies who have trouble getting a deep latch often find that using this position helps! Laying babies tummy to tummy with you and leaning into the cushions behind you will make this a relaxing position. Having a cushion on each side to support your elbows might be helpful as well.

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Cradle hold + football hold

Placing one baby in the cradle hold and the other in the football hold is another effective way to nurse both babies at once. Again, pillows on each side might be helpful. You can also lean back into the cushions behind you in this position as well once baby are latched.

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Football Hold 

Your babies may not feed on the same schedule or pattern every day and that’s normal. Feeding one at a time can be a great opportunity to spend one-on-one time with each child.

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Cradle Hold x2 

Holding both babies in the cradle hold, as their legs cross in your lap is another efficient way to tandem feed. This can be used for newborns as well as older babies. As your babies get older, your positioning will adjust to their needs and bodies. Their nursing sessions may be shorter and they may not want to lie down to nurse anymore. Learn more about nursing as your baby gets older at our post, How Breastfeeding Can Change as Baby Gets Older. These shorter nursing sessions can look any way that you and your babies need them to!

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Cradle Hold

Feeding one baby at a time in the cradle hold allows you to free up one hand. It also allows the other baby to explore or get into mischief ;).

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Breastfeeding twins can seem complicated at first, but with some support and a bit of trial and error, you can find the right positions that work for you and your twins. I hope these images and explanations have helped you better visualize how you will breastfeed your babies. You moms of multiples are strong and can do amazing things. The Twin Z Pillow is a great tool for feeding your twins and we are here for you anytime you have questions or want to troubleshoot positioning or latch. Our IBCLC team covers a wide geographic area for in-person consults and are available online through a secure video chat, eConsults, for those outside of our area. For more tips and encouragement for breastfeeding twins, read our post, How can I breastfeed twins? To prepare to breastfeed ANY number of babies, we recommend our Breastfeeding Video Bundle which will take you from prenatal planning, first latch, first solids and weaning.   Remember to use ou can use code LACLINK for a free Twin Scheduler and Travel Bag! You can also use code LACLINK for 15% off their One Z Pillow! Do you have any other questions on positioning while breastfeeding twins? What positions worked the best for you? Share in the comments.

Best positions for breastfeeding twins with Lactation Link and Twin Z Nursing Pillows

Thanks for stopping by,

Lindsey Shipley, RN, IBCLC

Nipple care guide via lactationlink.com

Nipple Care Guide

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips | No Comments

Hi mamas, I’m Stephanie Weight Hadfield, an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) and mom of 4. I’m here today to share a guide to caring for your nipples before and during breastfeeding. This nipple care guide will help prepare you for breastfeeding with confidence!

At Lactation Link, we get lots of questions from mamas wondering if they need to do anything special during pregnancy to prep their nipples for breastfeeding, or if nipples need special care or cleaning once baby is here. The quick answer is no. The nipple and areola (pronounced air-e-O-la, it’s the darker pigmented area that surrounds your nipple) can do a pretty good job taking care of themselves.Because of this, our nipples do not need any special nipple care during pregnancy. You don’t need to do anything to disinfect your nipples and you definitely don’t need to “toughen them up”. 

You may have noticed small bumps around your areola that became more prominent during your pregnancy and might be especially noticeable when you’re cold. These are called Montgomery glands and they secrete a substance that is anti-bacterial and naturally moisturizing. This substance also smells similar to your amniotic fluid, so it can help babies find the nipple and latch right after birth (1). Isn’t that amazing?! As long as you don’t have any cracking or damage to your nipples, they don’t need any special nipple care through washing or disinfecting beyond your normal bathing routine.

Nipple care guide via lactationlink.com

Basic Nipple Care

  • Make sure your baby is latching well. A deep, comfortable latch is your first defense against nipple pain and damage, and will also help your baby get more of your milk. Lactation Link’s online breastfeeding courses include in-depth information on how to position baby for the most comfortable and effective latch. You nipple care routine will be rather short if baby is latching well!
  • Pain is not normal. Nipple pain is your body’s way of telling you that something needs to change with the latch. Some tenderness is normal during the first couple of weeks. However, pain that lasts longer than the first 30 seconds of a latch or is severe, is a sign that you need to unlatch baby and try again. If you’re not able to get your baby to latch comfortably, get help. Continuing to nurse through pain can cause nipple damage like cracking, bleeding, blistering and infection. With qualified lactation help, breastfeeding will get better!
  • Change your breast pads often to keep your nipples from sitting in an over-wet environment. Think of what happens to your fingers and toes when you take a long bath– they get wrinkly as they absorb extra water. The same thing can happen to your nipples if they are exposed to soggy breast pads for long periods of time: it leads to chapping and skin breakdown.

Nipple care guide via lactationlink.com

Caring for Tender or Damaged Skin

If you already have painful skin damage like cracking, blistering and bleeding, get qualified, in-person help, preferably from an IBCLC. We would love to help, with either an eConsult or an in-person consultation if you are in our area. Tips to healing and nipple care will not do any good if the latch is still causing damage every time baby feeds. In the meantime, here are some quick tips to help you find some relief:

  • Offer the uninjured or less injured side first until the milk releases. Once you see your baby swallowing actively, then gently move your baby to feed on the more painful side. This can help because babies tend to have a stronger suck at the beginning of a feeding session when they’re trying to stimulate the flow of milk. If both sides are painful and sore, you can stimulate a letdown by expressing a small amount of milk before putting your baby to the breast (2).

Nipple care guide via lactationlink.com

  • Talk to your healthcare provider about taking an over-the-counter pain reliever. Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) is a good choice because it relieves inflammation in addition to pain and is generally considered compatible with breastfeeding.
  • Wash your hands carefully before every feeding (singing the alphabet song in your head can help get the timing right). If you have any cracks or breaks in your skin, gently wash your nipples and areolae twice each day with a mild, non-perfumed, non-antibacterial soap until the broken skin is healed. Breaks in your skin are an entry point for germs to enter the breast and cause infection. Careful hygiene is one of the best ways to reduce the increased risk of mastitis that comes from having damaged nipples (3).

Nipple care guide via lactationlink.com

  • Provide a moist healing environment. This is different than the soggy surface wetness I mentioned above. Wound care experts have found that wounds heal faster and with less pain when the natural internal moisture of the skin is protected (4). Moist wound healing techniques have also been found to reduce pain because they protect exposed nerve endings (5). There are many products on the market designed to provide moist healing for breastfeeding mothers, like hypoallergenic purified lanolin ointments or hydrogel pads. Apply these products after every feeding session to maintain consistent protection until your skin is healed.
  • Contact your healthcare provider if you have any signs of infection: inflammation/redness, swelling, oozing or pus. A variety of rashes can also cause nipple pain, so see your healthcare provider if you have flaky, red, itchy, shiny and/or irritated skin that extends to your areola.

Provide a moist healing environment. This is different than the soggy surface wetness I mentioned above. Wound care experts have found that wounds heal faster and with less pain when the natural internal moisture of the skin is protected (4). Moist wound healing techniques have also been found to reduce pain because they protect exposed nerve endings (5). There are many products on the market designed to provide moist healing for breastfeeding mothers, like hypoallergenic purified lanolin ointments or hydrogel pads. Apply these products after every feeding session to maintain consistent protection until your skin is healed.Remember, nipple pain and/or damage is not normal: it’s a big red flag that you need competent and compassionate clinical breastfeeding support. If you live in Utah between Payson and Ogden, one of Lactation Link’s International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) can come to your home to assess your baby’s latch and the cause of your pain. If you live outside of our area, you can find an IBCLC in your area, by clicking here.

More articles on nipple & breast care from Lactation Link:

Reasons & Solutions for Nipple Pain

Which Nursing Pad is Right for Me?

How to Relieve Breast Pain While Breastfeeding

Have you signed up for our free email breastfeeding course?

I think you’ll find it really helpful. Click the image below for more info.

Join our free confident breastfeeding course

Thanks for stopping by,

Get in-person or online help with breastfeeding.

Stephanie Weight Hadfield, BS, IBCLC

Sources:

  1. Doucet, S., Soussignan, R., Sagot, P., & Schaal, B. (2009). The secretion of areolar (Montgomery’s) glands from lactating women elicits selective, unconditional responses in neonates. PLoS One, 4(10), e7579.
  2. Mohrbacher, N. (2010). Breastfeeding answers made simple: a guide for helping mothers. Amarillo, TX: Hale Pub.
  3. Genna, C. W. (2009). Selecting and using breastfeeding tools: improving care and outcomes. Amarillo, TX: Hale Pub.
  4. Hinman, C. D., & Maibach, H. (1963). Effect of Air Exposure and Occlusion on Experimental Human Skin Wounds. Nature, 200, 377-378.
  5. Mertz, P.M. (1990). Intervention: Dressing effects on wound healing. In: W.H. Eaglstein (Ed.), Wound care manual: New directions in wound healing (pp. 83-96).

 

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues via lactationlink.com

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips | 3 Comments

Hi mamas! I’m Kristin Gourley, IBCLC. I’m a mom to 5 and lactation consultant with Lactation Link. I’m here today to talk about newborn hunger cues. Enjoy!

Sometimes it can take some time to learn your baby’s cues to eat, but it’s important to remember that nursing is ....

Soon after you’re holding your fresh bundle of joy the reality can set in: you are responsible for keeping this little one alive and thriving!  So how do you know when your baby is hungry if he can’t tell you?  Well, baby not be able to use words and tell you, but he sure can let you know when he’s ready to eat! Read on to learn about newborn hunger cues!

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues via lactationlink.com

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Babies have great survival instincts and consistent behaviors to show when they are hungry (and then when they’re full!).  Sometimes it can take some time to learn your baby’s cues to eat, but it’s important to remember that nursing is about more than just the food. You can offer the breast to your baby even if it hasn’t been the standard 2-3 hours that the hospital said would be in between feeds.  You can’t nurse too much!  

Common hunger cues in infants

  • Quiet alert state (check out our Breastfeeding Basics class for a great video showing this behavior!).  If baby is turning his head from side to side or turning his head and opening his mouth while looking content, put him to breast!  He may be content now, but he’s trying to tell you he’s hungry before he gets hangry!
  • Sucking on hands, lips, clothes, toys, etc.  Babies do put everything in their mouths, but hand sucking in the first few weeks is a big sign of hunger, and frantic sucking on anything else is a dependable sign of hunger in babies once they’re a couple months old.

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues via lactationlink.com

  • Trying to lay down in typical nursing position.  If you normally breastfeed in the cradle position, baby might try and throw his head back to get into that position.  It’s a not-so-subtle way to say, “Hey, mom!  Help me do this!”

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues via lactationlink.com

  • Squirming around is another sign of potential hunger, especially in newborns and very young infants.  Little babies with full tummies are generally very relaxed and content.

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues via lactationlink.com

  • Mild fussiness.  This is pretty self-explanatory, but babies can be intermittently fussy before they get to the too-hungry stage.  Sometimes moms will think that baby is just fussy or having a “witching hour,” when really he is trying to let you know that he’s getting hungry (and on his way to getting overly worked up!).

If you’ve spent any time with a baby you are probably wondering why crying is not on this list!  It’s true that babies will cry when they get hungry, but it’s generally once they are so hungry that they’ve gotten angry they haven’t been fed yet! (1)  Once it gets to this point, you often need to calm baby down so he can focus enough to latch on and breastfeed.  

Breastfeeding baby hunger cues via lactationlink.com

It can seem like a crash course in learning baby language when you become a parent, but rest assured that you will learn your baby’s unique signs and become fluent before you know it!  To feel as prepared and confident as possible once baby arrives, be sure to take our Confident Breastfeeding Course video classes.  Our classes are also great once baby arrives!  Don’t feel like you’re flailing in parenthood; knowledge brings confidence!  Are you still unsure about what baby is trying to tell you?  Schedule an e-consult and we would love to help you figure it out.

Thanks for stopping by,

Kristin Gourley, BS, IBCLC

Have you signed up for our free email breastfeeding course?

I think you’ll find it really helpful. Click the image below for more info.

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Sources

(1) Riordan, J. & Wambach, K. (2010). Perinatal and intrapartum care in Breastfeeding and human lactation, 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, p. 221.

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

What is SIDS and how can breastfeeding reduce my baby’s risk?

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips | One Comment

Hi mamas, I’m Stephanie Weight Hadfield, an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) and mom of 4. I’m here today to talk about SIDS and how breastfeeding can reduce your baby’s risk. I hope it brings you more confidence as you face infant feeding and sleeping options!

 

Even small amounts of breastmilk offer some safety from SIDS, and exclusive breastfeeding offers the best risk reduction. Let's take a look at the....

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

SIDS, or Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, is a worry that strikes fear into the hearts of just about every parent. According to the CDC, SIDS is the sudden death of an infant less than 1 year of age that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation. In 2015, SIDS was given as the cause of death for about 1,600 U.S. babies (1). Although SIDS is different from smothering or suffocation, they are all often lumped together in the research and discussion, which can make it difficult to really understand what is going on.

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

While researchers still have a lot to learn about this tragic condition, multiple studies have found something that I’m very interested in as a lactation consultant: Breastfed babies have a decreased risk of SIDS by 50% or more (2). The protection seems to increase the more mother’s milk your baby gets (i.e. how much of baby’s food source comes from breastmilk).  Even small amounts of breastmilk offer some safety from SIDS, and exclusive breastfeeding offers the best risk reduction (3). Let’s take a look at the research to find out more.

Why does breastfeeding make a difference?

We don’t know exactly why breastfeeding protects babies, but there are a few theories. First of all, illnesses like diarrhea and upper respiratory infections happen more often for babies who are not breastfed, and these minor illnesses have frequently been associated with SIDS (4).  Another theory is that breastmilk provides optimal nutrition for brain development and this could help at-risk babies’ brains mature so that they have the normal response of gasping for air when they should.

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

The typical sleep patterns of breastfed babies might also offer some clues as to why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS. Researchers have found that breastfed babies generally sleep for shorter stretches and are a lot easier to wake from active sleep than non-breastfed babies (5,6). Shorter sleep stretches and being more easily woken could be another piece of the protection puzzle.

If just hearing the news that breastfed babies have shorter sleep stretches makes you feel more exhausted, listen up! Exclusively breastfeeding mothers (and their partners) get more sleep and spend more time in deep sleep than mothers who are not breastfeeding, even though their babies tend to wake more frequently at night (7,8).  This is because breastfed babies and their moms fall back asleep faster.  It’s pretty fantastic that breastfeeding can help you get more rest AND protect your baby at the same time.

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

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What causes SIDS?

Scientists still don’t know exactly why some babies die without explanation, but recent research points to the possibility of brain stem abnormalities that prevent some babies from being able to rouse from sleep and gasp for air when their blood oxygen levels are too low. (9,10,11). These babies seem to be in more danger when other risk factors for SIDS are present and babies are younger than 6 months. The four biggest risk factors are (12):

  • Household smoking
  • Putting a baby on his or her stomach for sleep
  • Leaving a sleeping baby unattended
  • Formula feeding

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

There is no way to know ahead of time if your baby has the condition researchers describe, so the best way to protect babies is for all parents to take measures to reduce the most common and avoidable risk factors:

  1. If you smoke, try to quit.  At the very least, don’t allow anyone to smoke inside your house or car or around your baby.
  2. Always put your baby on his or her back to sleep.
    Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

    {Plum Pretty Sugar Robe}

  1. Keep your baby close at night. There are many different sleeping arrangements that can keep your baby close (and safe) at night, which can also make nighttime feedings easier and help you get more rest (13):
  • A bassinet or cradle next to your bed
  • Baby’s crib attached to your bed in a “side-car” arrangement (no gaps or wedges present)
  • A “co-sleeper” bed that attaches to your bed
  • Baby put to sleep on a mattress on the floor away from the walls in your room, so you can lie down and sleep while breastfeeding the baby and return to your own bed after the baby goes back to sleep.
  • Baby sleeps in your bed, either for part of the night– after he or she awakens the first time– or for the whole night. Read our article on How to Co-sleep Safely for more information.
Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

{Dock a Tot}

  1. Breastfeed. The #1 rule is always feed the baby, so if formula is necessary, use it. If it’s not necessary, try to avoid it. Remember that the more of your milk your baby gets, the lower the risk of SIDS. Some breastfeeding is definitely better than none. A visit with a lactation consultant (IBCLC) can help you maximize the amount of your milk that your baby will get. Lactation Link’s IBCLCs are available for home and hospital visits for families in our geographic area and secure video e-consults for families everywhere else. We are always happy to support mothers with their breastfeeding questions and goals.

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

Information like this is exactly why I’m so passionate about supporting families with feeding their babies. Breastfeeding isn’t just a lifestyle choice or another way to get food into babies, it is the biological norm for nurturing babies and supporting their overall growth and development and helps make healthy families and communities.

Why breastfeeding reduces the risk of SIDS via lactationlink.com

Here at Lactation Link, we want to support you! Our breastfeeding video courses can help you get a great start to your breastfeeding relationship, and our lactation consultants are available to help you with any concerns that pop up along the way. Let us help you reach your breastfeeding goals, whatever they may be.

Thanks for stopping by,

Get in-person or online help with breastfeeding.

Stephanie Weight Hadfield, BS, IBCLC

Have you signed up for our free email breastfeeding course?

I think you’ll find it really helpful. Click the image below for more info.

Join our free confident breastfeeding course

Sources

(1) Centers for Disease Control (2017, February 1). Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Data and Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/sids/data.htm

(2) Hauck, F.R., Thompson, J.M., Tanabe, K.O., et al. Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 128, no.1 (2011): 103-110.

(3) McVea, K. L. S. P., Turner, P. D., & Peppler, D. K. (2000). The role of breastfeeding in sudden infant death syndrome. Journal of Human Lactation, 16 13-20

(4) Dujits, L., Jaddoe, V. W., Hofman, A., & Moll, H. A. (2010). Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of infectious diseases in infancy. Pediatrics, 126, e18-e25

(5) Quillin, S. I., & Glenn, L. L. (2004) Interaction between feeding method and co-sleeping on maternal-newborn sleep. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(5), 580-588.

(6) Ball, H. L. (2003). Breastfeeding, bed-sharing, and infant sleep. Birth, 3 30(3), 181-188.

(7) Doan, T., Gardiner, A., Gay, C. L., & Lee, K. A. (2007). Breastfeeding increases sleep duration of new parents. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing. 21(3), 200-206.

(8) Blyton, D. M., Sullivan, C. E., and Edwards, N. (2002). Lactation is associated with an increase in slow-wave sleep in women. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(4), 297-303.

(9) Kinney, H. C. (2005). Abnormalities of the brainstem serotonergic system in the sudden infant death syndrome: A review. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 8, 507-524.

(10) Kinney, H. C., Randall, L. L., Sleeper, L. A., et al. (2003). Serotonergenic brainstem abnormalities in Northern Plains Indians with the sudden infant death syndrome. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 62, 1178-1191.

(11) Paterson, D. S., Trachtenberg, F. L., Thompson, E. G., et al. (2006). Multiple serotonergenic brainstem abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 2124-2132.

(12) Moon, R.Y., et al. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths; expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics 128, no.5 (2011): 1030:1039.

(13) Mohrbacher, N. (2010) Breastfeeding answers made simple: A guide for helping mothers. Amarillo, TX: Hale.

 

What not to eat while breastfeeding via lactationlink.com

What not to eat when breastfeeding

By | Breastfeeding, Breastfeeding support, breastfeeding tips, Can I breastfeed if?, Uncategorized

Hi mamas! I’m Kristin Gourley, IBCLC. I’m a mom to 5 and lactation consultant with Lactation Link. I’m here today to debunk some myths about what not to eat when breastfeeding and if you need a breastfeeding diet. Thanks for stopping by!

Does that mean that your milk tastes the same no matter what you eat? No! One of the benefits of breastfeeding is that your baby is very gently introduced to.......Picture this (depending on your own personal experience you may be able to “remember this”!): You just had your baby and are dying for a really great meal.  You love Mexican food and want a spicy burrito from your favorite restaurant.  Your partner is more than willing to go get it for you, but then your mother comes to visit and is shocked!  She scolds you, with your baby at your breast, saying that you can’t possibly eat spicy food while breastfeeding!  Let alone all the beans that are in that burrito!  Suddenly you feel really anxious– you didn’t know that you had to change your diet while breastfeeding.  What can you eat now?! Is there a breastfeeding diet??

Breastfeeding diet myths debunked

Well, I have some good news!  Today I’m going to debunk that all-too-common myth that all breastfeeding mothers need to reduce or eliminate their intake of spicy food, gassy food, strong flavors, caffeinated drinks, or anything else you can imagine!

Is there a mother's breastfeeding diet? Read: What not to eat while breastfeeding via lactationlink.comMothers from cultures all over the world have been breastfeeding for, well, forever.  Many cultures have unique foods that would be considered anything but bland.  These babies thrive even when their moms eat these flavorful foods, so we know it’s not something that needs to be universally avoided.

Does baby taste what I taste?

Does that mean that your milk tastes the same no matter what you eat?  No!  One of the benefits of breastfeeding is that your baby is very gently introduced to your family’s tastes even before that first messy experience with solid foods.  That can help baby be more accepting of new foods when she is ready (1).

Is there a mother's breastfeeding diet? Read: What not to eat while breastfeeding via lactationlink.com

{Undercover Mama Nursing Top: Save 20% with code LLINK}

In fact, there was a study where mothers were given garlic pills and an hour later their babies nursed for longer periods than they had before!  The milk also smelled like garlic, so we can assume that the babies liked the subtle flavor change of the milk when mom consumed lots of garlic (2).

You don’t need to take garlic pills to encourage your baby to breastfeed, but you can rest assured that you can generally eat what you like while breastfeeding your baby, and baby might learn to like the same foods!

What about gassy foods?

But what about what your mom said about the beans?  Do beans, broccoli, onions, cabbage, or other traditionally gassy foods cause gas in your baby?  The research says no!  Gas in mom is caused by the breakdown of food in your intestines, but your milk doesn’t come from the contents of your intestines (or stomach).  Your milk is made from your blood, and gas doesn’t transfer from your intestines into your blood.

Is there a mother's breastfeeding diet? Read: What not to eat while breastfeeding via lactationlink.comGas in babies is usually caused by swallowing air, immature gut, or not understanding how to pass gas that occurs. Some doctors believe that gas as a reason for baby’s upset is assumed too often by parents (3). That said, if your baby seems uncomfortable or unwell, you are the expert!  Don’t hesitate to contact your pediatrician.

Caffeine and alcohol

Caffeine and alcohol are two substances moms are often instructed to eliminate while they’re breastfeeding.  While they both pass into breastmilk (since they pass into your blood– this is why they affect your behavior), the amount that makes it into your milk compared to the amount you drink is low. Learn more about how caffeine affects breastfeeding at Can I breastfeed and drink caffeine?.

Is there a mother's breastfeeding diet? Read: What not to eat while breastfeeding via lactationlink.com

The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding recommends that mothers limit their alcohol intake while breastfeeding, and ingest no more than 2 oz. liquor, 8 oz. wine, or 2 beers, as well as abstain from breastfeeding for about 2 hours after drinking to further minimize any alcohol in breastmilk (4).  Similarly, the AAP Committee on Drugs recommends no more than 2-3 cups of caffeine per day, as there should be little to no effect on the baby at that level (5).

What about fish?

Per the FDA, a few species of fish are to be avoided in order to prevent mercury accumulation in baby. These fish include king mackerel, marlin, orange roughy, shark, swordfish, bigeye tuna and tilefish (from the Gulf of Mexico). However, other fish such as salmon, cod, herring and more are safe for up to 3 servings a week. See the full list at the Food and Drug Administration.

What about food allergies?

We’ve gone over a lot of reasons why you shouldn’t worry too much about what you eat while breastfeeding, but we all know that food allergies are a real possibility.  They are, however, much less common than some of the things you read on the internet can lead you to believe!  A family history of allergies makes them a bigger possibility, but signs of a food allergy can include: rashes, eczema, breathing issues, continual intestinal upset, and traditional allergy symptoms like red, itchy eyes.  If these occur, then an elimination diet for mom may be indicated, but it should be done under the care of a doctor and an IBCLC! (6)

What about milk supply?

Despite what you might have heard, following a specific breastfeeding diet to increase (or decrease) your milk supply is not evidence-based. Mothers experiencing a wide variety of food plenty and food scarcity all over the world (and throughout time) are (and were) able to fully breastfeed. Breastmilk is made from the body’s energy stores and the mother’s diet (7). So, mothers may find themselves needing to increase their caloric intake while breastfeeding and an extra 300-500 calories is the recommendation. This can be added through a larger portion of your meals or simply through a peanut butter sandwich. If you are concerned about milk supply, a breastfeeding diet will probably not make a difference. While some moms have found that eating a breakfast of oatmeal increases their supply, the best way to increase supply is to increase breast stimulation. The best tips for increasing supply are found in our breastfeeding video classes. Past blog posts, How to Increase Supply and 5 Ways to Keep Your Supply are helpful as well.

I hope this post has given your confidence and helped debunk the myth that mothers need to follow a breastfeeding diet. Have you noticed your baby likes or doesn’t like certain foods you eat?  Or has certain reactions when you eat certain foods?  We’d love to hear about it in the comments!  If you think your baby is having problems with what you’re eating, you may benefit from a one-on-one consult with one of our knowledgeable IBCLCs.  And check out our video classes for more awesome breastfeeding facts!

Thanks for stopping by,

lactationlink008

Kristin Gourley, BS, IBCLC

Have you signed up for our free email breastfeeding course?

I think you’ll find it really helpful. Click the image below for more info.

Join our free confident breastfeeding course

Sources

  1. Riordan, J. & Wambach, K. (2010). Anatomy and physiology of lactation. In Breastfeeding and human lactation (4th ed., p. 92). Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  2. Mennella, JA & Beauchamp, GK. (1991). Maternal diet alters the sensory qualities of human milk and the nursling’s behavior. Pediatrics 88(4): 737-44.
  3. Sferra TJ, Heitlinger LA. (1996). Gastrointestinal gas formation and infantile colic. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 43(2):489-510.
  4. AAP Section on Breastfeeding. (2012). Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk.Pediatrics, 129(3) e827-e841; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552
  5. AAP Committee on Drugs. (2001). The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics, 108(3): 776-1029; DOI:  10.1542/peds.108.3.776.
  6. Allergic Proctocolitis in the Exclusively Breastfed Infant. (2011). Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol #24, from Breastfeeding Medicine 6(6): 435-440.
  7. Lauwers, J. & Swisher, A. (2016). Nutrition during lactation. In Counseling the Nursing Mother (6th ed., p. 166). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.